Classical Agora

During the Classical Times, Agora was the centre of the social and political life of Athens. Public buildings, sanctuaries and fountain houses were constructed. The area between these buildings, used for feasts and athletic games, was filled with statues and altars.

Building activity at those times can be divided in two periods (or two centuries): before and after the Peloponnesian war (5th and 4th centuries BCE).

5th century BCE



Πανοραμική άποψη της Αγοράς του 5ου αι. π.Χ. 1.Βασίλειος Στοά 2.Στοά Ελευθερίου Διός 3 Ναός Ηφαίστου 4.Νέο Βουλευτήριο 5. Θόλος 6. Παλαιό Βουλευτήριο 7Αιάκειον 8 Νότια Στοά Ι 9. Αρχαϊκή κρήνη 10.Νομισματοκοπείο, 11 Περίβολος 12. Ποικίλη Στοά

The Agora during the 5th century BCE: 1. Basileios Stoa, 2.Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios, 3. Temple of Hephaestus, 4. New Bouleuterion, 5. Tholos, 6. Old Bouleuterion, 7. Aiakeion, 8. South Stoa I, 9. Archaic fountain house, 10. The Mint, 11. Open-air court, 12. Stoa Poikile.

Immediately after the Persian Wars, the Athenians started to rebuilt their city and the Agora. They focused their attention to the construction of several public buildings. Three stoas were built: Basileios, Zeus Eleutherios and Poikile. The last one later became the base of the stoic philosophers. A new Bouleuterion was built near the older one and a round building, the Tholos, that was used as a dinning room for the elected Deputies. On the southern side, between the Aiakeion and the archaic fountain house, a very long stoa, the so-called “South Stoa I” was erected in order to serve as a market.  A little further to the east was the mint of Athens and the Eleusinion (the sanctuary of goddess Demeter and her daughter Persephone). The northeast side was dominated by the grounds of an open-air courthouse. In the west was the Temple of Hephaestus (Hephaesteion), the now knwon as Theseion.

4th century  BCE
Άποψη της Αγοράς τον 4ο αι.π.Χ. 1. Το τετράγωνο περιστύλιο 2. Ο ναός του Πατρώου Απόλλωνα 3. Το μνημείο των Επώνυμων Ηρώων 4. Η νοτιοδυτική κρήνη.

The Agora in the 4th century BCE: 1. Square Peristyle, 2. The temple of Patroos Apollo, 3. The monument of Eponymous Heroes, 4. The southwest fountain house.


In the 4th century BCE only a few new constructions can be found. For the first time after the destruction of the city by the Persians in 480 BCE, the temple of Patroos Apollo was rebuilt. A big square peristyle building was constructed in the east side on the spot of the previous open-air courthouse. Also, the Athenians built a new fountain house west of the Aiakeion and the monument of the Eponymous Heroes was transferred in front of the Bouleuterion.

     For other monuments of Classic Athens click below: