The Agora

The Agora in the Middle Ages

After the invasion of the Heruli the city was completely destroyed. All the buildings in the Agora were burned to ground except the Temple of Hephaestus which suffered minor damages. The city wall was destroyed and Athens became a very small town. For this reason, a new, small wall was constructed in 280 CE, north of the Acropolis, the Postherulian Wall.

Πανοραμική άποψη της Αγοράς γύρω στο 500 μ.Χ. Στο κέντρο ξεχωρίζει το μεγάλο συγκρότημα κτηρίων, πιθανόν Γυμνάσιο. Κάτω δεξιά ο Ναός του Ηφαίστου μετά τη μετατροπή του σε εκκλησία του Αγίου Γεωργίου. Στα αριστερά το υστερορωμαϊκό τείχος που ενσωμάτωσε τη στοά του Αττάλου.

Aerial view of the Agora in around 500 CE. In the middle is the huge building complex, possibly a gymnasium. Down right is the Temple of Hephaestus converted into a church of St. George. On the left are the remains of the Stoa of Attalos as a part of the Postherulian Wall.

In the Agora, the central and Southern space was occupied by a huge building complex, probably a gymnasium or a palace, constructed in around 400 CE. The Tholos was repaired and in the place of the Metroon was built a Basilica (maybe a jewish synagogue). In the eastern part, the east wall of the ruined Stoa of Attalos was incorporated into the new Wall. In the western part, the Temple of Hephaestus, was converted in the middle of the the 5th century into a church dedicated to St. George.

The Library of Hadrian

After the invsion of 267, the Library of Hadrian suffered much damage but was repaired by the eparchus Herculius between the years 402 and 410. In the middle of the central court was erected a big church dedicated to St. Mary called Megali Panagia (Great Mary) that was perhaps the first christian church of Athens. This building was destroyed in the 6th century and in its place took a smaller basilica which burned in the 11th century. Finally, a third very small church was built over the last one in the 12th century and served as the first Cathedral of Athens.

For other monuments of Medieval Athens click below: